New name, new platform, new design - new everything.
The 120th Paris Motor Show is an important venue for Toyota as not only it’s the place where the Camry is being exhibited as an Avensis replacement, but it’s also the event where the new Corolla is showcased as the direct successor of the Auris. Both the five-door hatchback and the wagon body styles are on display, complete with an entirely different design and overhauled hardware compared to the outgoing Auris.
Riding on the TNGA platform, the Corollas are longer than the models they replace (+40 mm for hatch, 58+ mm for Touring Sports) and part of that stretch can be seen in the extended wheelbases freeing up more room inside the cabin. The center of gravity has been dropped by 10 mm and all versions come as standard with a multi-link rear suspension. Not only that, but Toyota mentions the rigidity of the body shell is up by 60 percent over the Auris models, thus bringing improved stability and handling without hampering comfort.
Customers will get to pick from a conventional 1.2-liter turbo engine and electrified 1.8- and 2.0-liter powertrains. The entry-level unit is good for 114 horsepower, followed by the smaller of the two hybrid engines with 120 hp and the bigger one with 178 hp on tap. The beefiest of them all offers 192 Newton-meters (142 pound-feet) of torque.
When it comes to equipment, there’s a lot to talk about. From LED headlights and wireless smartphone charging to a head-up display and a panoramic sunroof, the Euro-spec Corolla can be had with an assortment of goodies. We are barely scratching the surface here as Toyota offers an extensive options list, which also includes a JBL sound system featuring eight speakers and an electrically operated tailgate.
The hatchback and wagon will be joined by a new sedan, quite possibly before the end of the decade.
Gallery: 2019 Toyota Corolla hatchback and wagon (Euro Spec) at the Paris Motor Show
New Corolla at the 2018 Paris Motor Show
Two distinctive designs and two hybrid powertrains
Joining the new generation Hatchback first revealed in Geneva earlier this year, the new generation Toyota Corolla Touring Sports makes its first appearance at the 2018 Paris Motor Show. The all-new Corolla –built at Toyota UK’s plant in Burnaston– showcases a more dynamic design which differentiates between the sporting, compact and dynamic Hatchback and the sleek, refined and versatile Touring Sports more strongly than ever before.
CREATED AND DEVELOPED IN EUROPE, the Touring Sports’ body type makes it a key model for fleet sales, with a growing market share.
With a brand new 2.0 litre self-charging hybrid powertrain joining the engine line-up, the new 2018 Corolla model range also marks the debut of Toyota’s dual hybrid strategy.
Toyota has always prided itself on listening to its customers and responding to the feedback they provide. Now, after 20 years of hybrid leadership and more than 12 million global sales, including 1.5 million units in Europe, the company has also focused on the input of potential customers who want more power whilst driving a hybrid.
For this reason, Toyota has decided to offer its core models with a choice of two hybrid powertrains; one offering all the fourth generation hybrid system’s strengths, including improved response and linearity, and the traditional benefits of fuel efficiency and a relaxing drive, the second building on these strengths with greater power on demand, effortless acceleration and more dynamic, ‘fun to drive’ characteristics.
Reflecting the brand’s continued focus on self-charging hybrid technology, both Hatchback and Touring Sports versions of the new Corolla will offer customers just one conventional engine -a 116 hp 1.2 litre turbo petrol unit- and a choice of 122 hp, 1.8 litre or 180 hp, 2.0 litre self-charging hybrid powertrains.
The 1.8 litre system fulfils all the requirements that customers have come to expect from a Toyota self-charging hybrid powertrain -quiet, intuitive, responsive and self-charging EV technology with low cost of ownership, no need for plug-in recharging and greater reliability than any conventional powertrain. The system offers outstanding fuel economy and low CO2emissions, and up to 50% all-electric driving* on the everyday commute.
Whilst continuing to reward customers with all of the above benefits, the 2.0 litre system takes full advantage of the added ride comfort, stability, handling and driving enjoyment inherent in the newly adopted Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) GA-C platform. It will offer drivers an ‘energised drive’, with more power and steering wheel-mounted paddles for a more dynamic, engaging driving experience.
Targeting the heart of the European C-segment, the new Hatchback and Touring Sports are dynamic and stylish cars which meet all the requirements of both the daily commute and diverse weekend usage, whilst combining driving enjoyment in all road conditions with the peace of mind and low running costs unique to Toyota’s self-charging hybrid drive technology.
TOYOTA NEW GLOBAL ARCHITECTURE (TNGA)
Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) represents the foundation for all of Toyota’s future powertrain and vehicle development, bringing a new-found consistency to driving feel across the entire Toyota model range. More of an entire philosophy than mere platform, TNGA marks a revolution in the way the company designs, engineers and manufactures vehicles. It is integral to the company’s mission to build ever better cars that are more stylish, more enjoyable to drive and even safer.
TNGA introduces new, defined guidelines for the positioning of different components which simplify vehicle design in key areas. The impact is on items that are largely out of sight, so designers still had the freedom to give both new Corolla versions a visually distinctive and individual look with a lower stance and more appealing proportions.
The new Corolla range’s TNGA GA-C platform guarantees a more rewarding driving experience thanks to a centre of gravity that is lowered by 10 mm (bonnet height -47 mm, front and rear hip points -24 and -26 mm respectively), multi-link rear suspension fitted as standard across the model range, and a 60% more rigid body shell through the use of high strength steel as reinforcement in key areas. All contribute to better handling and stability without compromising ride and comfort.
All new TNGA-based vehicles prioritise the highest active and passive safety standards. New Corolla is designed to meet the exacting standards of independent crash testing programmes and provide increased active safety levels through the sophisticated functions and systems of the latest Toyota Safety Sense technology. (Read more about Toyota Safety Sense in the dedicated chapter).
Touring Sports Exterior Design
‘With the new Corolla Touring Sports, we aimed to develop the most sleek and sporty wagon in the C-segment, whilst offering D-segment downsizers the benefits of class-leading rear seat legroom and a highly competitive loadspace volume’ (Kazuhiko Isawa, Chief Stylist – European Design Centre)
With a body type that is unique to Europe, the new Touring Sports was styled in Europe at the recently opened Design Centre in Zaventem. Thanks to the adoption of TNGA, the new wagon is no longer merely a variation of the hatchback, but has become a distinctly separate model in its own right.
The new Touring Sports is 58 mm longer than the model it replaces. More significantly, it has a 100 mm longer wheelbase of 2,700 mm, and the front to rear seat couple distance has increased by 48 mm to 928 mm, providing best-in-class rear seat passenger legroom.
Though it shares the same dynamic, distinctive frontal styling and 25 mm reduction in overall height as the new Corolla Hatchback, every body panel of the new Touring Sports from the B pillar aft is exclusive to the model, giving the wagon the refined, sensuous appearance and sweeping roofline of an elegant yet robust shooting brake.
This sporting profile is reinforced by the same wide, flaring wheel arches as those of the Hatchback, their edges hemmed to allow the positioning of the wheels further outwards to emphasise the new Corolla’s wider stance and lower centre of gravity.
To the rear, the Touring Sports design theme shares the Hatchback’s muscular rear shoulders, widely spaced, full-LED lamp clusters and a rear windscreen 12 degrees more slanted than that of the current generation.
Distinct from the hatchback, the licence plate has been repositioned higher, within the tailgate panel, and the step at the tailgate sill has been reduced for a more premium appearance. Deeper rear bumper styling also echoes the frontal Under Priority Catamaran design.
The Touring Sports will be available with a choice of five new wheel designs including 18” machine-finished aluminium alloy wheels and two new 17” alloy wheel designs -one silver and one black machine-finished.
It will be available in a choice of 11 body colours of which four -Oxide Bronze Metallic, Emotional Red 2, Precious Silver and Phantom Brown- are new.
Exclusive to the segment, the Corolla Touring Sports’ dynamic design is further emphasised through a range of four optional bi-tone colour schemes available from launch. They combine the body colour with a black finish to the roof and roof pillars, and the front lower grille surround.
Hatchback Exterior Design
‘Our primary goal with the new Corolla was to create the most bold and dynamic hatchback on the market, without compromising on interior usability,’explains Simon Humphries, Executive General Manager, Toyota Global Design.
‘Harnessing the low centre of gravity afforded by the TNGA layout, the vehicle is light and agile in the side view, yet as we move to the rear, the architecture transforms to create a solid, wide and low stance that is absolutely critical to the European market.’
The new Corolla adopts a significantly more sporting, dynamic and distinctive design with more striking frontal styling.
Overall length has increased by 40 mm, all of which has been absorbed within a longer wheelbase for better safety and improved design. Importantly, the overall height of the new hatchback has been reduced by some 25 mm, whilst the cowl height of the vehicle is a significant 47 mm lower. The result is a sleeker shape and a more attractive, lower bonnet, which in turn improves safety by giving the driver a clearer forward view.
The new frontal styling is a further evolution of Toyota’s Under Priority Catamaran and Keen Look design philosophies. Beneath the curved front edge of a flatter, clamshell bonnet, the narrow upper grille incorporates new, all-LED headlamp clusters with integral Daytime Running Lights (DRL).
The surround to the large, trapezoidal lower grille projects powerfully forward. It is less pointed and more vertical than before, resulting in a reduction to the vehicle’s front overhang of some 20 mm.
The sides of the grille surround form a trademark, catamaran hull shape at the front corners of the new Corolla, emphasising the vehicle’s 30 mm increase in width, and its broad, sporting stance. The upturned edges of the front spoiler locate new, LED foglamps. And the grille mesh itself is of a new more articulate and refined design.
In profile, the elegance of the new Hatchback’s sleek, sporting silhouette is enhanced by a choice of the same five new wheel designs as those offered on the Touring Sports.
The new rear design is more rounded than before, strengthening the visual relationship between the front and rear of the vehicle. The tailgate is constructed in resin to both make possible the design’s complex curvature, and save weight.
An increase in rear windscreen angle of some 14 degrees and the muscular hip above the rear wheel arch combine to make the overall appearance of the vehicle rear more compact. A roof spoiler is integrated into the tailgate and a shark fin antenna is fitted as standard on all model grades.
The rear all-LED lamp clusters feature light guides placed as far as possible towards the vehicle extremities to emphasise the new Corolla’s wide, planted rear stance. And the rear bumper styling echoes the frontal Under Priority Catamaran design; a thin lower lip here incorporating twin chrome inserts.
The new Corolla Hatchback will be available in the same choice of 11 body colours as the Touring Sports, and will also benefit from the same range of four optional bi-tone colour schemes.
Touring Sports and Hatchback Interior Design
‘Having already demonstrated their expertise on the C-HR, a dedicated TME Sensory Quality team was assigned to oversee interior quality in the new Corolla. Working in close cooperation with stylists and engineers, the team analysed and visualised the whole interior, taking into account not only colours, grades and executions, but also such details as light intensity and direction.
Based on this work, numerous enhancements have been implemented at each development phase, ranging from shape consistency to colour and grain matching, as well as quality control in later phases. The result of such painstaking attention to detail has resulted in a significant improvement in overall sensory quality.’(Yasushi Ueda, Chief Engineer – Toyota Motor Corporation)
The new Corolla Touring Sports and Hatchback model range showcases an all-new interior designed to create a spacious, modern and cohesive cabin environment in which new textures, colours and trim combine to offer the highest levels of visual and tactile quality.
Particular attention has been paid to the interior of the Touring Sports version, which has been specifically tailored to the European market, offering customers sensory quality of the highest order.
Key to the interior’s feeling of spaciousness is a new instrument panel design which is 24 mm slimmer overall. The resultant reduction in height of the upper panel area reduces the perceived mass of the panel itself, and improves forward visibility whilst still allowing for a lowering of the front seat hip point to lower the vehicle’s centre of gravity and offer a more engaging driving position.
Conversely, the centre console has been made 42 mm wider and 22 mm higher to both improve switchgear and gear lever ergonomics and also enhance the wrap-around feel of the driver’s cockpit area. Simultaneously, the centre console armrest height has been optimised, and its sliding range increased by 20 mm for greater occupant comfort.
A revised front seat design features changes to both the seat back and cushion springs and the optimisation of urethane pad thickness. In combination these measures achieve a better driving posture with wider pressure dispersal for enhanced comfort and reduced long-haul fatigue.
Standard on High grade models, a newly developed front sports seat features thin and wide shoulder supports which overlap solid, thick side bolsters to combine a thin seat design with excellent holding performance.
The ergonomic excellence of the driver’s cockpit area is further enhanced by a range of new switchgear and instrumentation which completes the Human Machine Interface (HMI).
Fully described in the Premium Comfort and Convenience chapter, this includes a new driver’s instrument binnacle incorporating a new 3D-effect panel or a Multi-information display, a new, 10” colour head-up display, a new 8” central multimedia display, an electronic parking brake, a wireless phone charging pad and an electrochromatic rear view mirror.
In combination with the extended couple distance for greater legroom, the rear seats have also been revised, with a new seat cushion material for the more even distribution of occupant weight over the cushion area. As a standard feature, the rear seats may be lowered by remote lever operation for a fully flat loadspace.
This all new interior design is made all the more cohesive and unified in appearance through the use of a range of high visual and tactile quality material and trim finishes, including satin chrome plating and paint, piano black, synthetic and genuine leather, stitching, and a choice of fabric, Alcantara or genuine leather seat upholstery.
The new Corolla Touring Sports has the additional benefits of a front to rear seat couple distance increased by 48 mm to 928 mm for improved rear seat passenger space, and a generous, 598 litre VDA loadspace incorporating numerous aids for to practicality and convenience.
A hands-free kick sensor is now available for operation of the power tailgate, activated by waving a foot under the central area of the rear bumper. Its opening has been extended by 10 mm.
The repositioning of the rear shock absorbers has allowed for a simplification of the deck side wall trim structure. This not only maximises loadspace width and enhances loading ease, but also makes side wall storage pockets available behind the rear wheel housings on both sides of the deck.
The load surface itself features a two (upper and lower) position deck, which may be open and closed in the upper position as if hinged from the rear seatbacks. Fitted as standard on all grades, it is also fully reversible with carpet on the upper face and a resin-finish underside for wet or dirty use.
The deck under-space has been enlarged and fully carpeted, and features detachable side separators. Convenience is further improved through the adoption of the world’s first LED compartment lamps on both sides of the loadspace, and a detachable, one-touch retractable tonneau cover.
PREMIUM COMFORT AND CONVENIENCE TECHNOLOGY
Largely fitted as standard on High grade models and available as an option throughout the new Corolla model range, a comprehensive range of comfort and convenience technology is available to enhance life on board for both the driver and all cabin occupants.
Particular attention has been paid to enhancing the convenience of the Corolla Touring Sports’ loadspace, which features a reversible, two position deck board fitted as standard throughout the range, the world’s first LED lighting and, on High grade versions, an aluminium anti-slide rail.
Further technology highlights include:
LED Headlamps:A range of three, grade-dependant LED front lamp clusters includes a triple LED parabola unit type headlamp, a Bi-Beam LED headlamp with AHB, and an LED headlamp with an Adaptive High-beam System (AHS).
World First 3-D Driver’s Meter:The drivers meter cluster is equipped with a 7” Multi-information Display offering a choice of digital and analogue speedometer modes. The panel may also be switched to the world’s first 3-D effect, in which the dials appear to float in mid-air.
Head-up Display (HUD):Its position and brightness adjustable via the steering wheel switchgear, an optional 10” colour TFT Head-up Display projects various driving-related information and warnings onto the windscreen glass within the driver’s field of view, such as speed limits, navigation prompts and an eco driving indicator.
Toyota Touch Multimedia System:The new Corolla’s 8”, full colour, touch-screen centre console display features Toyota’s Touch® 2 with Go multimedia and navigation system. The overall user experience of this fast operating system is enhanced by pinch, zoom and slide operation, and the addition of multi-contextual One Box Search.
eCall:eCall provides drivers with assistance during an incident when the airbags are deployed. It will automatically contact national emergency services, providing essential information such as vehicle location and the number of occupants, and ensuring that vehicle occupants will be able to communicate with the emergency services operator even if seriously immobilised.
eCall also allows the vehicle occupant to contact the emergency services directly via a one-push button. The call is made using the vehicle’s in-built SIM, with no charge to the owner.
Connected Services:Connected services will also be offered on the new Corolla. This all-new application makes numerous convenience and peace of mind features available to customers, including Last Mile guidance, Send to Car navigation, Find my Car, Driving analytics and Maintenance Reminder.
JBL GreenEdge Premium Sound System:Hybrid versions of the new Corolla may be equipped with an 8-speaker JBL Premium Sound System. The speakers -including JBL’s iconic, A pillar-mounted horn tweeter- have been specifically tuned to the acoustics of the Corolla’s notably quiet cabin. The system incorporates Clari-FiTMtechnology which supplements the frequencies that are lost on compressed audio files -such as MP3 or streaming audio files- in real time, restoring the sound quality and stereo mix as closely as possible to the original recording.
Wireless Mobile Phone Charging:A wireless charging system allows vehicle occupants to recharge all Wireless Power Consortium (WPC)-compatible mobile telephones simply by resting them on a dedicated pad located in front of the gearshift lever.
Skyview Panoramic Sunroof:The Skyview panoramic sunroof features two glass panels, the front panel sliding to give a maximum opening of 272 mm. A mesh deflector reduces wind noise when the panel is fully open, and the roof is fitted with an internal electric roller shade.
Power Tailgate Kick Sensor:A hands-free kick sensor is now available for the opening and closing of the Touring Sports’ power tailgate, activated by sliding a foot under the central area of the rear bumper. The tailgate height when fully open can be customised. The tailgate now features a one-touch, close and lock button.
Simple Intelligent Park Assist with Intelligent Clearance Sonar (SIPA+ICS):The system uses a rear camera and ultrasonic sensors on the front side-bumper to identify viable reverse and parallel parking spaces. It will then automatically apply the correct sequence of steering angles for the parking manoeuvre into the target space; all the driver needs do is control the vehicle’s speed. SIPA automatically activates the Intelligent Clearance Sonar (ICS) system, ensuring the safety of parking manoeuvres.
Society’s increasing awareness of environmental issues has led to ever more strict anti-emissions regulations, particularly in large European cities. Combining the lowest possible emissions with the capability of driving for up to 50% of a daily commute under all-electric power alone, Toyota’s self-charging hybrid powertrains represent a compelling proposition in the eco-friendly urban transport market.
The new Corolla is the first Toyota model to offer a choice of 2 self-charging hybrid powertrains. Both Hatchback and Touring Sports versions of will offer customers one conventional engine -a 1.2 litre turbo petrol unit- and a choice of 122 hp, 1.8 litre or 180 hp, 2.0 litre hybrid powertrains.
Improved 1.8 Litre Hybrid Powertrain
The fourth generation 1.8 litre self-charging hybrid system develops 90 kW/122 hp and 142 Nm of engine torque, with the added power of a 53 kW electric motor which develops maximum torque of 163 Nm from zero rpm. It fulfils all the requirements that customers have come to expect from a Toyota self-charging hybrid powertrain -quiet, intuitive, responsive and self-sufficient EV technology with no need for plug-in recharging. It offers low cost of ownership, outstanding fuel economy and low CO2emissions, and up to 50%* all-electric driving on the everyday commute.
Its size and weight reduced to fit on the new GA-C platform without detriment to output or quietness, the 1.8 litre engine benefits from several friction reducing measures, a larger capacity EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system and optimal heat management.
The calibration of the hybrid drive system has been further refined. Greater torque from the electric motor provides a more linear rpm increase under acceleration. And the adoption of a lithium-ion battery pack promotes even greater fuel economy.
2.0 Litre Hybrid Powertrain
‘At the start of the project, we studied European customer profiles and their satisfaction with the 1.8 litre hybrid powertrain. Whilst being very happy with the system’s fuel consumption, comfort, smoothness and reliability, it became apparent that we would not be able to satisfy the requirements of a significant group of potential customers.
People driving turbocharged powertrains above 1.4 litres were clearly asking for faster acceleration and response, and that’s why we took the decision to develop the 2.0 litre hybrid for the European market.’(Rembert Serrus, Senior Manager Performance Planning – Toyota Motor Europe)
The new 2.0 litre system develops 132 kW/180 hp and 192 Nm of engine torque, also with the added torque of a nickel-metal hydride-powered electric motor.
Taking full advantage of the added stability, handling and agility inherent in the newly adopted GA-C platform, it offers drivers an ‘energised drive’, with more power, a Sport mode and a six-speed Sequential Shiftmatic transmission with steering wheel-mounted paddles for a more dynamic, engaging driving experience.
Moreover, the new 2.0 litre hybrid system is a unique proposition in this segment; no other conventional powertrain can offer the same combination of performance and low emissions. And numerous measures have been taken to ensure that extra power is matched by enhanced fuel efficiency, lower emissions and even quieter running.
A high compression ratio of 14:1, the high speed combustion achieved through the high tumble flow of a highly efficient intake port and long stroke, a new oil pump design and several friction-reducing measures combine with a reduction in size of the transaxle, power control unit, motor and hybrid battery to enhance fuel efficiency.
In addition, the EV drive vehicle maximum speed has been increased to above 115 km/h, and system control has been changed to prohibit engine start without accelerator pedal operation even before engine warm up starts. In combination, these measures substantially enhance fuel efficiency.
Lowering emissions, the exhaust system catalytic converter has been placed closer to the engine, and warm-up control after engine start optimised to achieve early, enhanced exhaust purification.
Furthermore, a balance shaft, amended engine mount position and shape, structural changes to the transaxle, gear tooth polishing, the adoption of a positive/negative hysterisis damper, a lightweight timing chain and revisions to the water pump motor all combine to reduce powertrain noise to exceptionally low levels.
The new GA-C platform brings considerable dynamic benefits to the new Corolla model range, as well as marked improvements to driver ergonomics and visibility.
Highly Rigid, Lightweight TNGA Bodyshell
Aluminium, high tensile strength steel and hot stamped materials have been extensively used, and the panel thickness of the doors and roof panel reduced. This has effected a considerable weight reduction and, hence, improved fuel efficiency.
At the same time, the addition of adhesives throughout the new bodyshell and an increase in the use of spot welding combine to increase body rigidity by some 60% over both outgoing Hatchback and Touring Sports models, promoting a marked increase in handling agility, responsiveness to steering inputs and high speed stability.
Handling and agility are further improved by the lower mounting height of the engine, the lower hip point of the seats and the location of the hybrid battery beneath the rear seats. In combination, these measures have lowered the new Corolla’s centre of gravity by some 10 mm.
The new Corolla features a proven MacPherson strut front suspension system, an all-new multilink rear suspension arrangement, new shock absorber valve technology and, for the first time, the availability of Adaptive Variable Suspension (AVS).
The front suspension geometry has been revised, and the coil spring and shock absorber characteristics optimised for a linear steering response during mid- to high-speed cornering. The suspension arm and bush structures have been changed and the friction of sliding parts reduced to minimise the transmission of shocks from rough surfaces and achieve high quality ride comfort.
The newly developed multilink rear suspension combines an increase in luggage capacity through compact system packaging with excellent handling stability and ride comfort. Exclusively designed coils springs offer both handling stability and ride comfort. And link arm location has been optimised to keep the tyres at a toe-in angle both during cornering and under braking, enhancing the vehicle’s response to steering inputs and stability under braking.
Both front and rear suspension systems benefit from a new shock absorber valve design which effects a 40% reduction in friction for a smoother, more comfortable ride.
The Adaptive Variable Suspension (AVS) system controls shock absorber damping on all four wheels, enhancing both ride comfort and -through improved steering response and a flatter ride- driving performance. Damping force is automatically and continuously controlled through 650 steps by a linear solenoid actuator, which operates four times faster than a conventional step motor.
AVS cooperates with the Drive Mode Select system to control damping force in accordance with the selection of ECO, NORMAL, SPORT S, SPORT S+ or CUSTOM modes, offering drivers the appropriate balance of ride comfort and handling agility.
A further benefit of the GA-C platform is its suitability for the design of a highly aerodynamic body shape through such measures as the overall reduction in vehicle height and the significant lowering of the bonnet height.
Further enhancing fuel efficiency, an optional grille shutter controls airflow to the engine compartment. Closing the shutter not only reduces drag, but also allows the engine to reach optimum operating temperature in a shorter time after a cold start.
Building on the exceptional quietness of Toyota’s self-charging hybrid technology, the new Corolla benefits from numerous measures to minimise both the noise and vibration entering the cabin.
The engine installation has been carefully designed to minimise vibration during start up and at idling speeds. Engine speed increase at the start of acceleration has also been suppressed, not only to achieve a more linear match of engine and vehicle speeds, but also to enhance quietness during acceleration.
The GA-C platform itself contributes to the suppression of transmission vibration. The steering wheel pad functions as a dynamic damper to suppress steering vibration, and even the tool box functions as a dynamic damper to reduce rear floor panel vibration.
The generous application of sound absorbing and insulating material in the engine bay combines with a triple-layered dashboard inner silencer to minimise the penetration of engine and transmission noise into the cabin.
An integral floor silencer has also been adopted, increased body sealer has been applied to gaps between panels, and foam material has been installed within the body frame in numerous locations to reduce the penetration of wind and road noise into the cabin.
* Depending on driving conditions