With styling beyond bold, the new 2004 CTS builds on Cadillac's 100-year tradition of engineering excellence and design innovation, and is a modern interpretation of the strikingly beautiful cars for which Cadillac became famous.
Fashioned from Cadillac's edgy, bold design vocabulary, its lean, chiseled body features sheer forms, sharp edges and crisp intersecting lines that at once honor Cadillac's storied past and look to the future. Built on GM's acclaimed Sigma rear-wheel-drive architecture, CTS was the first North American vehicle to be rigorously tested at the famed Nürburgring in Germany.
For 2004, the automatic transmission CTS features GM's all-new 3.6L V-6 VVT (variable valve timing) engine, new shocks and shock mounts will provide a softer ride without sacrificing performance, and a few interior changes debut. And also for the 2004 model year, the CTS-V debuts, the first model to be developed by the new General Motors Performance Division and the most powerful Cadillac production car ever at 400 hp (298 kw).
"As the first production version of Cadillac's breakthrough design philosophy, CTS delivered on our bold new look," said Jay Spenchian, marketing director. "First-year U.S. sales were strong, at 37,976, well ahead of the 30,000 units projected for 2002."
Designed using the latest advanced engineering tools, the all-new 3.6L V-6 VVT engine debuts on CTS models with automatic transmission and incorporates features and technology packaged to deliver high performance and refinement. It is mated to the Hydra-Matic 5L40-E 5-speed automatic transmission.
The V-6 VVT is the first V-6 to demonstrate a key GM strategy: to develop world-class engines with fully contemporary features - such as dual overhead cams and variable valve timing - but at a competitive cost structure that allows use of the engines in a global mix of vehicles.
The 3.6L global V-6 develops 255 hp (190 kw) at 6200 rpm and 255 lb.-ft. of torque (346 Nm) at 3200 rpm and is mated to the 5L40-E automatic transmission. The adoption of fully variable valve timing for both intake and exhaust valves provides outstanding flexibility, fuel economy and emissions reduction.
Compared to an existing GM DOHC V-6, the 3.6L V-6 VVT develops 20 percent more peak power, a 13 percent increase in peak torque - and a 24 percent increase in torque-integral, or the amount of torque available at most points throughout the rpm range.
Although a design priority was to minimize or eliminate all sources of undesirable engine noise, the sound that does reach vehicle occupants has been carefully optimized to be rich and rewarding. Intense focus on reducing noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) did not compromise the dictates of high specific output.
Numerous design features ensure the V-6 VVT is one of the most polished V-6s on the market. It has specially isolated cam covers to decouple them from vibration created by the combustion process, while the engine front cover incorporates internal damping plates to quell engine vibrations. A structural aluminum oil pan, attached by a full-circle mounting, enhances bending stiffness and mitigates "drumming" from the oil pan.
Polymer-coated piston skirts help the piston to track more smoothly and quietly in the bore. Pressure-actuated piston-oil squirters help cool the pistons, contributing to performance and durability, and help minimize noise that typically emanates from the cylinder bores and reciprocating components. "Hiss" from the PCV valve is eliminated by using two dissimilar-sized flow-metering holes, while equal-length intake manifold runners minimize half-order noise content.
A forged steel crankshaft ensures the durability required of high specific output variants and provides an extra degree of robustness. Flexible oil pan configurations facilitate the engine's adaptability for all drive layouts.
In addition, CTS models equipped with the new engine also feature a dual outlet performance exhaust system.
Other new CTS offerings for 2004 include a retuned base suspension with new shocks and shock mounts, which offers smooth road feel without sacrificing performance. The Sport package, featuring newly designed 17-inch wheels (painted or polished finish), StabiliTrak, performance brake linings, variable assist steering, and rear load-leveling, is now available across the CTS lineup.
Interior refinements include chrome accents on the ashtray, body-colored center armrest and color-keyed center console, instrument cluster temperature gauge and bright white lighting. A new power adjustable lumbar support with power adjustable seat is optional.
The 3.2L V-6 that powers the manual-transmission version CTS was completely re-engineered for the 2003 model year. The engine makes 220 hp (164 kw) at 6000 rpm and 220 lb.-ft. of torque (298 Nm) at 3400 rpm. The engine was fully revamped to improve driveability, power, torque and emissions and designed to take full advantage of every bit of its 220 horsepower.
The longitudinally mounted V-6 features a stiffer, stronger cylinder block, forged steel crankshaft, improved lubrication, better cooling and higher fuel pressure delivery to improve fuel injectors. Aluminum cylinder heads feature an improved combustion chamber design to reduce unburned hydrocarbons and a drive-by-wire throttle system for better emissions performance.
The new 3.6L engine is mated to the 5L40-E Hydra-Matic five-speed electronically controlled automatic transmission. A state-of-the-art transmission, the light, compact 5L40-E features a full complement of advanced electronic control capabilities. These include a shift mode button that allows the driver to select between "sport," "winter" and "economy" modes. Another electronic feature is also a first for GM: engine braking in all five gears, giving the automatic the same sporty feel as a downshifting manual.
The 3.2L engine is mated to a five-speed manual from Getrag, evidence of Cadillac's commitment to making CTS a true driver's car. It uses a rod-actuated shift linkage and is characterized by its durability, smoothness and accurate shift feel.
Equipped with the manual, the CTS can accelerate 0-60 mph in less than 7 seconds and has excellent road-handling capabilities. Placement of the clutch, brake and throttle pedals was optimized for heel-and-toe operation, an important consideration for any performance vehicle. Rigorous testing at the Nürburgring allowed engineers to find just the right throttle progression and clutch engagement point.
The Cadillac design team gave CTS a look all its own - one that's uniquely Cadillac. The design adopts the sharp forms, angular shapes and crisp edges of stealth aircraft technology, along with other American, high-tech geometric influences. This risk-taking design is marked by a taut, lean body that's long from dash to axle, with short overhangs.
Traditional design cues, including the grille and exterior lighting, have been updated for the CTS. Cadillac's traditional vertical headlamps and taillamps first appeared in 1965, and CTS carries on and refines the tradition. CTS' integrated headlamps convey the high-tech image of optical instruments and high-end camera lenses. Thin and tall, they create more space for the large, louvered egg-crate grille - another Cadillac staple dating back to the 1930s.
The interior provides all the amenities that luxury customers have come to expect, with the emphasis on comfort and convenience. It makes use of warm, rich materials to contrast with the cool, computer-like, high-tech cockpit appearance, balancing the contemporary feel with touches of traditional luxury. Wood is used sparingly, only in areas with which the customer comes into contact, such as on the steering wheel, shifter knob and door pulls.
The CTS' Sigma architecture is the first usage of ultra high-strength steel at GM, and the first time the steel has been incorporated as a welded member of the structure. In the past, ultra high-strength steel was limited to applications such as bumpers, where bolts were used for attachment. Ultra high-strength steel permits the use of thinner, lighter steel, which reduces mass yet still allows proper energy absorption and reduces intrusion into the passenger compartment in an accident.
Source: Cadillac press