The Woking-based outfit announced on Friday that its 2017 challenger, which is being launched later this month, will be called the MCL32.
The move comes in the wake of the departure of long-time chief Ron Dennis at the end of last year, and as part of a freshening up of its brand image by new executive director Zak Brown.
Dennis was behind the original MP4 name, which stood for Marlboro Project Four.
That was in reference to the tobacco sponsor that helped engineer in 1981 a reverse takeover of McLaren by Dennis, whose previous operation had been Project Four Racing.
The first car to carry the tag was the MP4, which was raced by John Watson at the 1981 Argentine Grand Prix, with the name carrying through to last year's MP4-31.
As well as the MCL chassis name change, McLaren is set to run a new colour scheme this year which will include its famous papaya orange colours.