Ferrari is no longer a Formula 1 team but "a group of scared people", according to the Maranello squad's former chief engineer Luca Baldisserri.
The Italian team has endured a difficult season after having targeted fighting for the title following three race victories in 2015.
Ferrari is yet to win a race in 2016 and is third in the championship behind champion Mercedes and Red Bull.
The team has undergone a personnel reshuffle during the year following the exit of technical director James Allison.
Baldisserri, who left the Scuderia last year, reckons the Italian squad lives under a state of constant fear.
"Unfortunately neither [president Sergio] Marchionne nor [team boss Maurizio] Arrivabene have experience in racing, a culture that the Scuderia of today has lost," Baldisserri told Corriere dello Sport in an interview.
"They are no longer a team, but a group of scared people."
"There is a climate of fear. The boys don't take risks for fear of being fired in disgrace," added the Italian, who led Ferrari's young driver academy before his exit.
The technical personnel reshuffle has seen Ferrari move towards a more horizontal structure with fewer bosses, a decision Baldisserri does not support.
"It doesn't mean anything," he said of the horizontal structure.
"The chain of command in Formula 1 has to be more than vertical: it must be military.
"The number ones are there to show the way, to motivate people, to decide, and if you make a mistake, you should not be fired. This happened to Allison, a great loss."
Allison, who left Ferrari in July, has been replaced by Mattia Binotto as chief technical officer, but Baldisserri reckons the Italian is not the ideal person to lead the technical team.
"Mattia knows how to motivate people, he has great experience but he is not a technical director," he added.
"He knows he cannot design a car and does not have deep knowledge of the chassis, aerodynamics or mechanical side. He would be a good team principal instead."
Baldisserri also reckons Ferrari needs to "recover" Sebastian Vettel after the German has endured a more difficult year this season.
"Raikkonen is doing better than in 2015, Vettel a lot worse," Baldisserri said. "It's important for Ferrari to recover him and to hold on to him, at least in the short term."