You might be surprised to see some otherwise ordinary vehicles that are costly to keep over a 10-year period.

Next to buying a house and paying for a college education, buying and owning a car, truck, or sport-utility vehicle is typically the next costliest expense. On average, it’s estimated that Americans spend around 10 percent of their household income on their cars, with around 1.5 percent of their annual take going to maintenance and repairs. Even if a vehicle is covered under warranty, there’s regular service visits to consider, and depending on the make and model, they can be costly. If you’re buying a used car or plan on keeping your current ride after the warranty expires, you’ll want to consider the cost of ongoing upkeep.

Generally, pricey luxury cars and finely engineered sports cars are the most common vehicle types to keep running over the long haul, with German brands typically costing the most in this regard. On the other hand, some rather common cars that may not be that expensive to fix can still drain one’s budget over the course of ownership if they make all-too-frequent visits to the repair shop. And as it is, maintenance and repair costs tend to increase as a vehicle ages.

The auto repair website has provided us with a list of the 15 models that are the most expensive to maintain and repair over a 10-year period. These projections are based on data the site collected from the records of 120,000 vehicles that were serviced during 2018. All are predicted to cost an average owner more than $11,000 to keep running over the course of a decade, with the priciest vehicle on the list projected at nearly $20,000. Out of the 15 cited models, the majority are luxury sedans and sports cars, with a single SUV represented. While not included here, the costliest pickup truck to keep running for a decade is the Ram 1500 at $10,500, according to data.

In addition to counting down the top 15 budget busters in the above slideshow, we’ve included estimates for three common dealer service procedures for vehicles from the 2018 model year or the most recent year applicable. These include an oil and filter change, installing new front and rear brake rotors and discs, and replacing the starter. They come from the website, and are based on Chicago-area labor rates. The website allows users to get typical local maintenance and repair estimates from a new-car dealership’s service department and a local shop, as well as their own onsite repair service for most makes and models dating back to the 1960’s

We’ll look at the cheapest vehicles to maintain and repair in a separate post.